Your browser version is outdated. We recommend that you update your browser to the latest version.

Browse by category...


SIGN UP to Defsec  eNewsletters

Fields marked with * are required.


DEFSEC Media is New Zealand's defence, security and fire B2B/B2G publishing group. Our leading magazines, Line of DefenceNZ Security and Fire NZ are read by key business, government and military decision makers and influencers. This website is the online home of cutting-edge content from each of our titles.


C-27J Spartan

Military MRO: Solving the maintenance skills shortage with augmented reality

Line of Defence Magazine, Winter 2017

Increasing asset complexity, decline in defence personnel numbers and maintenance training lagIncreasing asset complexity, decline in defence personnel numbers and maintenance training lag


How can militaries balance equipment availability with a reactive and compliant maintenance strategy and supply chain when skilled engineers are in short supply? Graham Grose, Vice President and Industry Director Aviation & Defence at IFS, examines the use of augmented reality to deliver maintenance expertise from anywhere in the world.


The market for virtual and augmented reality is growing - one report from Digi-Capital predicts the VR/AR market to be worth $120bn by 2020. Virtual reality has hit the consumer world with a bang, and the defence sector is now starting to see the power of the technology, and its close ‘relation’ augmented reality, in action.

The Royal Australian Air Force is already exploring the potential of augmented reality to help improve the Air Force’s response to threats as well as for planning and training methods.


Training for maintenance a real opportunity

The technologies have been used to simulate training exercises to speed up and reduce the costs associated with readying military personnel for deployment. For example, the Dismounted Soldier Training System for the US Army was the first ever fully immersive virtual simulation training system aimed at giving soldiers more training time before being deployed in the battlefield. But only now are we seeing them implemented to fulfil a growing requirement for defence organisations – the global issue of effectively and flexibly deploying scarce and expensive maintenance personnel.


Growing asset complexity requires skilled engineers

Military assets continue to grow in complexity. Forces across the globe are beginning to take delivery of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, the most complex and capable military jet ever manufactured. Larger assets such as the Nimitz-class super aircraft carriers also pose significant maintenance challenges.

It’s estimated the USS Theodore Roosevelt contains over 1,000 miles of electrical cable and an air conditioning plant capable of sustaining 500 houses. It’s no surprise that it took some four years to complete the mid-life refuelling and complex overhaul (RCOH) of the carrier from 2009 to 2013.

Increasing asset complexity, the decline in defence personnel numbers and a maintenance training lag means having the right engineers in place to keep equipment available is becoming a difficult management task.  The US Department of Defense recently announced it was postponing deployment of CV-22 Osprey aircraft at Yokota Air Base in Japan due to a shortage of experienced maintenance and operational staff. 


Enjoying this article? Consider a subscription to the print edition of Line of Defence.


Supply loses out to demand from booming commercial aviation market

On one hand, sophisticated equipment entering defence supply chains requires significantly longer lead times on training. Maintenance personnel are trained - and qualified - to perform specific repairs on specific equipment and, particularly on aerospace assets, nothing else. On the other hand, the military cannot compete with the booming commercial aviation industry, especially in the fast-growing Middle East where airline operators and MROs can headhunt military personnel with attractive salary offers, work hours and safer environments.

In Australia, a University of New South Wales study found the country’s defence forces were likely to suffer from a projected 30 percent shortage of maintenance workers by 2020. Statistics from the Australian Department of Employment showed the number of maintenance trainees and apprentices more than halved from 779 to 370 between 2013 and 2015.


Globalisation provides a huge logistics footprint

Add to this the fact that military engagements are less-predictable now than ever before. Insurgency-based threats can arise anywhere at any time, and counter-terror warfare requires defence organisations to be prepared to respond as quickly as possible.

Sending a fully effective defence force forward requires maintenance expertise to be available close to the area of equipment operation. Maintenance personnel then need transport, food and shelter, not to mention force protection – quickly becoming the start of an ever-growing logistics footprint.

It’s worth remembering that in the Crimean War there were no logisticians involved. Major developments since then means that across the three services of a mature defence organisation such as the UK MOD, 1 in 6 personnel are now directly involved in logistics. In a modern air force organisation, such as the USAF and RAF, 95 percent of trades are non-pilot supporting roles.


Three options, one clear winner

When positioning maintenance personnel to maximise force readiness, defence organisations are faced with three options:

1. Strategically position maintenance engineers geographically 

One option for defence forces is to deploy units and maintenance personnel in likely areas of conflict. With insurgency-type threats arising without notice in any given area, second-guessing these potential conflicts would require deployment of many maintenance troops and engineering equipment, not to mention life support in different locations.

However, even deploying a small force involves a spiraling logistics footprint - and cost - involving equipment, fuel, food, ammunition, security, spare parts and more, plus the transport infrastructure to rotate them. A small deployment soon becomes a long-term camp - witness the UK MOD Camp Bastion in Afghanistan which is estimated to have cost $1bn over its lifespan, supporting 28,000 troops, 4,032 contractors and 3,080 vehicles.

2. Operate a 'fix when required' approach

Should defence forces risk leaving a vehicle, weapon or plane sitting idle in a remote location and fly a qualified engineer out to fix it on an as-required basis?

With forces spread in remote locations, flying a skilled engineer out to the front line to repair stricken equipment can take time - time which defence forces cannot afford. In many cases, it may be too dangerous to deploy a maintenance engineer in the field, leaving squads cut off without mission-critical equipment.

In addition, until a maintenance assessment has been completed at the asset, it’s not always obvious which engineer role, qualification and equipment is needed to affect the repair.

3. The third way - augmented and virtual reality

Using remote guidance via a wearable or mobile device, engineer skills can be ‘augmented’ as more qualified technicians provide expertise from any location in the world. Virtual reality simulation can even speed the training process itself.

At the 2016 MRO Europe conference in Amsterdam, ICF International vice-president Jonathan Berger predicted virtual reality could shave one or two years off traditional maintenance engineer training programs. AR and VR could be of particular interest to the military in the coming years as the technology continues to mature.

A one-to-many delivery of expertise from a central hub to remotely deployed engineers has the potential to drastically reduce training times, improve maintenance efficiency and bring huge cost savings.


Augmented reality provides a ‘win-win’ solution

Current mobile solutions support collaboration and drive better data capture and compliance, but even these devices cannot solve the ‘right skills in the right place’ issue. Maintenance personnel could of course contact senior technicians via cell phone, but there is no way of seeing or demonstrating how a task should be executed. These are often airworthiness decisions after all.

Integrating the latest technology with a configuration-controlled solution adds the necessary rigor to remote maintenance tasks.

Augmented reality specialist XMReality has been working on remote guidance in the field, enabling junior engineers involved in a repair to instantly contact experts back at base. The company has designed an augmented reality solution for the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) because of the increased efficiency the technology offered organisations in other industries.

Using remote guidance, a support technician can see the asset in real-time and guide the engineer through every step of the repair with augmented hands and tools – all without having to leave base. Using smartglasses, mobile devices or tablets, engineers can see a real-time and interactive demonstration of the repair job right in front of their eyes. These skills can be leveraged anywhere, any time with the capability of modern mobile technology, helping improve first-time fix rates and decrease the chance of error.


What’s next – keeping soldiers safe and missions on-course

When these AR and VR technologies are integrated with a supporting enterprise asset management or MRO solution, the maintenance operator can quickly report and complete repair jobs – getting mission-critical equipment back up and running as soon as possible.

The next step will be to develop these solutions to the point where they can be feasibly used on the frontline or in the bowels of an aircraft carrier, without compromising repair time, soldier safety and mission success. Functionality must be tailored for ease of use in the field, keeping in mind the conditions a soldier or front-line engineer may be operating in - possibly kitted up in chemical, biological, radioactive and nuclear equipment or in the dark bilge of an at-sea submarine.

With augmented reality maximising engineer efficiency, defence forces will no longer have to watch the gap when it comes to maintenance resource shortage.


Graham Grose is Vice President and Industry Director Aviation & Defence at IFS, a leading vendor of enterprise asset management (EAM) software to the Aerospace and Defence sector globally. He is a supply chain specialist and a former RAF Supply Officer.


Back to Defence

Follow us


Contact us

Phone: 022 366 3691


© 2015. Defsec Media Limited. All Rights Reserved.






Line of Defence     

Fire NZ     

NZ Security